Although it is never possible to fully prevent the unauthorized use of information from people with security clearances and access, the use of security clearance and access is important to ensure that people without security clearance cannot access the confidential information. In other words, the concept of absolute security is a chimera. It is the nature of security that makes it necessary to weigh up the threats, the risks, the harm arising, and the cost of safeguards (Bach, 1986). A balance must be found between predictable costs and uncertain benefits, in order to select a set of measures appropriate to the need.
In most of the cases, the risks of security clearance involve on the personal integrity, trustworthiness, and honesty than the information systems (IS) security measures. Even if IS security measures are handled to monitor and control all of the keystrokes of the computers, there are instances of unauthorized information because of personal negligence, such as one may leave inadvertently classified material left unattended. Also, computer diskettes, CDs, carbon paper, and used typewriter ribbons may pose a problem when doing a security check, as a visual examination of these items does not tell whether the items contain classified information (Bjork, 1975).
Although to prevent the unauthorized use of information, information can be disaggregated at several locations, without providing networks communications between these locations. However, this kind of measure is neither cost-effective nor productive, because where people are trustworthy and they need such information for authorized uses will have access to such information in bits and pieces from several locations. It would not only create time delay in accessing all of the needed information, but it would create much difficulty in putting all of the information in order. However, when data are in a database format, it is possible to partition sensitive data into separate tables so that only authorized users can access these tables based on legitimate needs. Partitioning scheme mechanism is based on a simple in-built DBMS security feature to prevent unauthorized access to sensitive data (Bhargavan and Gadia,.