For the most part none of these three examples ever had the experience of living under an autocratic form of government and so the transition from one form of government to another was much smoother. A tradition of democracy supersedes the influence of ethnic diversity in that such tradition cultivates an understanding and respect for negotiated solutions for contentious issues in society which in the long run increases the chances that a democracy will sustain itself.
The final variable in determining the sustainability of democratization is a nations economic status. Nations that enjoy a prosperous economy are far more likely to accept democratization than one where economy is struggling and it matters very little whether such democratization is imposed or pacted.
The track record on imposed democratization is not a good one. In most imposed democratization situations the tradition of democracy and the balance of power necessary to sustain the process is missing. Pacted democratization is more successfully maintained due to the fact that in such situations the differences between the various segments of society have already been negotiated and compromised. In the imposed democratization situation this process has not taken place and it remains for the imposing government to maintain the balance of power.
As the process of democratization continues in earnest throughout the world and the debate as to the effectiveness of imposed democratization continues as well. The Middle East and Northern Africa have become the new sphere of interest as student revolts and United States and United Nations involvement have increased the possibility of new democracies developing in such areas (Diamond). The student revolts are based on a grass roots movement and, therefore, will have elements of a pacted democratization while the involvement of the United States and United Nations are of an imposed democratization. Time will reveal which process works more effectively in the concerned areas but history reveals that democracy is more likely to thrive where it is supported by the masses and not where an outside force is imposing its will.
Diamond, Larry. A Fourth Wave or False Start? Report. New York: Council on Foreign Relations, 2011.
Fukuyama, Francis. “Stateness” First.” Journal of Democracy (2005): 84-88.
Huntington, Samuel P. “Will More Countries Become Democratic?” Political Science Quarterly (1984): 193-218.
Steinmo, Sven. Structuring Politics. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University.